Reconstruction, in the history of the United States, the period (1865-77) that followed the Civil War and during which attempts were made to remedy the injustices of slavery and its political, social and economic legacy, and to solve the problems that arose from the readmission into the Union of the 11 states that had seceded during or before the outbreak of the war. Long portrayed by many historians as a time when vengeful radical republicans attached black supremacy to the defeated Confederacy, reconstruction since the late 20th century has been viewed with more sympathy than a commendable experiment in interracial democracy. Reconstruction saw profound changes in American political life. At the national level, new laws and constitutional amendments have permanently changed the federal system and the definition of U.S. citizenship. In the South, a politically mobilized black community partnered with white allies to bring the Republican Party to power, redefining the responsibilities of government. B. There will be a war in which the South will win because of its governmental dominance and obvious determination. A combination of personal stubbornness, a fervent belief in state rights, and racist beliefs led Johnson to reject these laws, leading to a permanent rift between him and Congress. The Civil Rights Act was the first major law in American history to become anarchy in the face of a president`s veto. Soon after, Congress approved the Fourteenth Amendment, which introduced the principle of citizenship by birth into the Constitution and prohibited states from depriving every citizen of “equal protection” of the law. The amendment, arguably the most important addition to the Constitution alongside the Bill of Rights, represented a profound shift in the relationship between the federal government and the states. Traditionally, civil rights have been delineated and protected by States.
After that, the federal government would guarantee the equality of all Americans before the law against state violations. The following excerpt is from the Thirteenth Amendment, which was passed by the U.S. Congress on December 6, 1865. After reading it, choose the statement that best summarizes the change request. Meanwhile, the social and economic transformation of the South has unfolded rapidly. For blacks, freedom meant independence from white control. Reconstruction provided an opportunity for African Americans to strengthen their family ties and create independent religious institutions that became centers of community life that survived long after reconstruction was complete. Former slaves also demanded economic independence. Blacks` hope that the federal government would provide them with land was made possible by General William T. Sherman`s campaign order of January 15, 1865, which reserved much of the land along the coast of South Carolina and Georgia for the exclusive settlement of black families, and by the Freedmen`s Bureau Act of March, which authorized the office to rent or sell land in its possession to former slaves. But President Johnson ordered in the summer of 1865 that the federal lands be returned to their former owners.
The dream of “40 hectares and a mule” was stillborn. .